Some more glimpses of London

London is one of the biggest and most interesting cities in the world.

Traditionally it is divided into the West End and the East End. The West End is famous for its beautiful avenues lined with plane trees, big stores, rich mansions, expensive restaurants, hotels, theatres and night clubs. The Some more glimpses of London East End used to be a poor area filled with warehouses, factories, slums and miserable houses. Quite a lot of people lived from хэнд to mouth here. For the recent years this area including Dockland has turned into a new housing development.

The heart of London is the City — its Some more glimpses of London commercial and business centre. Here is situated the Tower of London that comes first among the historic buildings of the city. If you want to get some glimpses of London it's just from here that you had better start sightseeing.

The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar Some more glimpses of London and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal residence and a prison. Now it is a museum of armour and also the place where the Crown Jewels are kept.

A twenty minutes' walk from the Tower will take you to another historic Some more glimpses of London building — St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect, Sir Christopher Wren (1632—1723). St. Paul's Cathedral with its huge dome and rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. In one of it towers Some more glimpses of London hangs one of the largest bells in the world, Great Paul, weighing about 17, 5 tons. Wellington, Nelson and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.

Not far away, in Westminster, where most of the Government buildings are situated, is Westminster Abbey. Many English sovereigns, outstanding statesmen Some more glimpses of London, painters and poets (Newton, Darwin, and Tennyson among them) are buried here.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. Its two graceful towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two contains the largest clock in the country and Some more glimpses of London the famous bell Big Ben that strikes every quarter of the hour.

If now we walk along Whitehall, we shall soon come to Trafalgar Square. It was so named in memory of the victory in the battle of Trafalgar, where on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Nelson's command Some more glimpses of London defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of Nelson's life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson's monument — a tall column with the figure of Nelson at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions.

The Some more glimpses of London fine building facing the square is the National Gallery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Portrait Gallery.

Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest Museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of different things (ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc.). The British Museum is Some more glimpses of London famous for its library — one of the richest in the world. In its large circular reading room Marx, Engels and later Lenin used to work.

And now, even if you have almost no time left for further sightseeing, you cannot leave the city without visiting Hyde Park or Some more glimpses of London “the Park” as Londoners call it. When you are walking along its shady avenues, sitting on the grass, admiring its beautiful flower-beds or watching swans and ducks floating on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all around there is a large city with its heavy traffic Some more glimpses of London and smoke.

Vocabulary

1) avenue – авеню, проспект; аллейка;

2) a plane tree – платан (дерево);

3) a mansion – коттедж, дом;

4) warehouse – склад;

5) slums – бедныерайоны, трущобы;

6) miserable – ничтожный, убогий; зд. ветхий;

7) to live from хэнд to mouth – едвасводитьконцысконцами;

8) housing development – жилойрайон;

9) fortress – крепость;

10) armour – доспехи, вооружение;

11) the Crown Jewels – драгоценности царской семьи;

12) dome – купол;

13) specimen – эталон;

14) to Some more glimpses of London consider – считать, считать;

15) outstanding – выдающийся;

16) statesman – муниципальный деятель;

17) graceful – стройный, роскошный;

18) to strike – ударять, лупить;

19) to defeat – повредить, убить;

20) priceless – неоценимый;

21) circular – круглый;

22) to admire – восхищаться, восторгаться.

Oxford

So this is Oxford. As soon as we emerge into the clean, broad streets, there are signs enough that this Some more glimpses of London is the ancient seat of English learning. Gowns and mortarboards.Young undergraduates in loose black thigh-length gowns. A graduate's gown is generally of knee length and for ceremonial occasions at least, has a hood lined in silk of the colour prescribed by the wearer's faculty.

Oxford's main Some more glimpses of London railway station is some half a mile to the west of the area in which are clustered most of the colleges: Queen's College and University College, Magdalen College and quite a number of others.

All these together make up the University of Oxford.

The central University Some more glimpses of London, in general, arranges lectures for the whole body of students in a particular subject and holds examinations and grants degrees; an individual college provides for residence and tutorials. Great emphasis is laid at Oxford and Cambridge on what are called "tutorials", in which a teacher gives personal instruction in Some more glimpses of London his study at least once a week to students numbering not more than four at a sitting.

For a lover of old architecture, Oxford has much to offer. Many of the colleges present a lovely picture of ancient pearl-grey walls, noble towers, picturesque gothic archways. All have grass lawns of Some more glimpses of London velvet smoothness which must be seen to be believed, and many have, in summer, most magnificent displays of flowers.

Vocabulary

1) to emerge – появляться, оказываться;

2) ancient – старый;

3) gown – мантия;

4) mortarboard – головной убор с квадратным верхом (шапочка выпускника);

5) undergraduate – студент;

6) thigh – бедро;

7) loose – широкий, свободный;

8) occasion – повод, случай;

9) to be lined – выстилаться Some more glimpses of London;

10) to prescribe – предписывать;

11) to cluster – группироваться, накапливаться;

12) to arrange – устраивать, организовывать;

13) particular – определенный, отдельный;

14) to hold examinations – проводитьэкзамены;

15) to provide – обеспечивать, предоставлять;

16) tutorial – консультация;

17) emphasis – повышенное внимание (значение);

18) study – зд. учебный кабинет;

19) pearl-grey – жемчужно-серый;

20) archway – арка;

21) noble – зд. величавый;

22) smoothness – гладкость;

23) magnificent – красивый, прекрасный.

Canada

Canada is Some more glimpses of London the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people. About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80 % of the population live within 320 km Some more glimpses of London of the southern border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natural conditions.

Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories. Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the Some more glimpses of London United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. This symbolizes the country's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.

Canada's people are. varied. About 57 % of Some more glimpses of London all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32 % have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country. French Canadians, most of whom live in the provinces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are Some more glimpses of London German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people—American Indians and Eskimos — make up about 2 % of the country's population." 77 % of Canada's people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.

Today, maintaining a sense of community is Some more glimpses of London one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80 % of Quebec's population are French Canadians. Many of them believe that their Some more glimpses of London province should recieve a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.


Vocabulary:

land area — площадь
population — население
border — граница
uninhabited — незаселенный
thinly populated — малонаселенный
severe — грозный
natural conditions — природные условия
federation — федерация
independent — независящий
Constitution Act — Конституционный акт
British Monarch — британская царица
the United Kingdom — Соединенное Царство
to recognize — признавать
ties — связи
to rule — править
domestic affairs — внутренние дела
to govern — управлять
foreign affairs — зарубежные дела
ancestry Some more glimpses of London — происхождение
official language — муниципальный язык
custom — обычай
ancestors — праотцы
Indians — краснокожие
to make up — составлять
urban — городской
capital — столица
to maintain — сохранять
community — общность
government — правительство
to pay attention — уделять внимание
recognition — признание

History of Canada

Canada's history is an exciting story of development of a vast wilderness into a great nation. Most experts believe that the first people who lived Some more glimpses of London on this land came from Asia about 15000 years ago. They came over a land bridge that once connected Asia and North America. Their descendants are known today as Indians. The ancestors of the Eskimos came to Alaska after them probably about 5000 years ago.

In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian Some more glimpses of London navigator in the service of England, found rich fishing grounds off Canada's south- east coast. His discovery led to the European exploration of Canada. France set up a colony in eastern Canada in the early 1600's. Great Britain gained control of the country in 1763, and thousands of British Some more glimpses of London emigrants came to Canada. In 1867, the French and English-speaking Canadians helped to create a united colony called the Dominion of Canada. Two groups worked together to settle the country and to develop its great mineral deposits and other natural resources.

Canada gained its independence from Britain in Some more glimpses of London 1931. During the middle of 20th century, hard-working Canadians turned their country into an economic giant.

Today Canada is a leading producer of wheat, oats, and barley, Canada also ranks among the world's top manufacturing countries, and it is a major producer of electric power.

Throughout its history Some more glimpses of London, Canada has often been troubled by lack of unity among its people. French Canadians, most of whom live in the province of Quebec, have struggled to preserve their own culture. They have long been angered by Canadian policies based on British traditions. Many of them support a movement to Some more glimpses of London make Quebec a separate nation. People in Canada's nine other provinces also frequently favour local needs over national interests.

Vocabulary:

vast — широкий

wilderness — пустыня

land bridge — перешеек

descendant — потомок

Indians — краснокожие

ancestor — предок

Escimos — эскимосы

navigator — мореход

fishing grounds — рыбныеместа

exploration — исследование

to set up — основать

Dominion of Canada — доминионКанада

to settle — заселить

to develop — создать

mineral deposits — залежиполезныхископаемых

natural resources — природныересурсы

hard-working — трудолюбивый, прилежный

to turn Some more glimpses of London into — перевоплотить

wheat — пшеница

oats — овес

barley — ячмень

electricpower — электроэнергия

lack — нехватка

tostruggle — стремиться

to preserve — сохранить

to favour — предпочитать


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